Hans Sluga

I have broad philosophical interests of both a systematic and a historical kind. These cross the boundaries of so-called “analytic” and “Continental” philosophy. From the latter tradition I have acquired a strongly historical bent. Over all I feel most indebted to Wittgenstein.

Among my systematic concerns are issues in the philosophy of logic (in particular the question how to conceive logic in naturalistic and historicist terms), the theory of meaning, and epistemology.

In recent years I have become increasingly concerned with political philosophy and specifically with what I call “the diagnostic tradition in political philosophy” which I see extending from Marx and Nietzsche to Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, and Michel Foucault. In reflecting on these matters I have asked myself how one might apply Wittgenstein’s lessons to political philosophy.

I have also been interested for a long time in the history of analytic philosophy (Frege, Moore, Russell, the Vienna Circle, Wittgenstein). And on the more Continental side in Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Foucault. In addition I have had a long-standing interest in ancient Greek thought and have also more recently acquired one in Chinese philosophy.




  1. Gottlob Frege, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1980. Chinese translation, Beijing 1990, 2nd ed. 1993. Greek translation 2010
  2. Heidegger’s Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1993.
  3. The Philosophy of Frege, (ed.), 4 vols., Garland Press,1993.
  4. The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein, (ed. with David Stern), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996; second, revised edition 2018
  5. Wittgenstein, Wiley Blackwell, 2011. Italian translation 2011; Chinese translation 2013
  6. Politics as Search for the Common Good, Cambridge University Press, 2014
  7. The Empire of Disorientation. Politics in the Age of Donald Trump (in preparation)


  1. “Frege und die Typentheorie,” in Logik und Logikkalkül, ed. M. Käsbaur, Munich 1962
  2. “On Sense,” in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, vol. 65, 1964-65
  3. “Freedom and Prediction,” in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, suppl. vol. 61, 1967
  4. Gottlob Frege, “Nachgelassene Schriften”, Review in Journal of Philosophy, vol. 68, 1971
  5. “Frege and the Rise of Analytic Philosophy”, in Inquiry, vol. 18, 1975
  6. “Frege as a Rationalist,” Studies on Frege, ed. M. Schirn, Stuttgart 1976, vol. 1
  7. “Frege’s Alleged Realism,” Inquiry, vol. 20, 1977
  8. R.L. Gregory, “Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany,” Review, in Brit. J. of Philos. Of Science, 1980
  9. “Crispin Wright on Wittgenstein,” Inquiry, vol. 25, 1982
  10. “Subjectivity in the Tractatus”, Synthese, vol. 56, 198
  11. “Frege: The Early Years”, Philosophy in History, ed. Q. Skinner et al., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1984
  12. “Geist, Materie und Ich in der Philosophie Wittgensteins”, Mensch, Natur, Gesellschaft, vol. 3, 1985
  13. “Foucault, the author and the discourse”, in vol. 28., Inquiry, 1985, French translation, Critique, 1986, German translation, Suhrkamp, 1990
  14. “Wittgensteins Blaues Buch”, in Proceedings of the Tenth Intern. Wittgenstein-Symposium, Vienna 1985
  15. P. M. S. Hacker and G. Baker, Frege: Logical Excavations and C. Wright, Frege’s Conception of Numbers as Objects, Review, in Isis, 1985
  16. Herbert Schnädelbach, Philosophy in Germany: 1831-1933, Review in British Journ. Of. Phil. Sci., Winter 1985
  17. “Frege against the Booleans”, in Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 1987
  18. “Semantic Content and Cognitive Sense”, in Frege Synthesized, Amsterdam 1987.
  19. “Das Ich muss aufgegeben werden. Zur Metaphysik in der analytischen Philosophie”, Metaphysik nach Kant? Proceedings of the 6th. International Hegel-Kongress, Stuttgart 1987
  20. “Heidegger: suite sans fin,” in Le Messager Europeen, vol. 3, 1989
  21. “Thinking as Writing”, Grazer Philosophische Zeitschrift, 1989
  22. “Metadiscourse. German Philosophy and National Socialism”, in Social Research, Winter 1989
  23. “The Break. Habermas, Heidegger, and the Nazis”, in Colloquies of the Center for Hermeneutical Studies, Berkeley 1992
  24. “Die verfehlte Sendung”, in Der geistige Anschluss. Philosophie und Politik an der Universität Wien 1930-1950, ed. K. R. Fischer and F. M. Wimmer, Vienna 1993
  25. “Zwischen Modernismus und Postmoderne: Wittgenstein und die Architektur”, in Die Wiener Jahrhundertwende, Vienna 1992
  26. “Macht und Ohnmacht der analytischen Philosophie”, in Bausteine wissenschaftlicher Weltauffassung, ed. F. Stadtler, Vienna 1996
  27. “Frege on Meaning”, Ratio, vol. 9, 1996, reprinted in The Rise of Analytic Philosophy, ed. H.J. Glock, Oxford 1997
  28. “Wittgenstein: Life and Work, in The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein, 1996
  29. ”‘Whose house is that?’ Wittgenstein on the self”, in The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein, 1996
  30. “Filozofia I Polytika W Nazistowskich Niemczech” in Odra, 1997
  31. “Homelessness and Homecoming. Nietzsche, Heidegger, Hölderlin,” in India and Beyond. Festschrift for Frits Staal, Amsterdam 1996
  32. “What has history to do with me? Wittgenstein and analytic philosophy”, Inquiry, March 1998
  33. “Von der Uneinheitlichkeit des Wissens”, in Philosophie in synthetischer Absicht. Festschrift für Dieter Henrich, ed. by M. Stamm, Stuttgart 1998
  34. “Truth before Tarski” in Alfred Tarski and the Vienna Circle, Kluwer, Dordrecht 1999
  35. “Heidegger and the Critique of Reason”, in What’s Left of the Enlightenment?, ed. Keith Baker et al., Stanford University Press, Stanford 2001
  36. “Conflict is the Father of Everything: Heidegger’s Polemical Conception of Politics” in Heidegger’s Introduction to Metaphysics, ed. R. Polt and G. Fried, Yale University Press, New Haven Conn., 2001
  37. “Was ‘Bedeutung’ bedeutet. Frege, Russell und Wittgenstein zu einem (?) Begriff” in Mit Bedeutungen Verfahren, ed. E. Waniek, Vienna 1999
  38. “Frege and the Indefinability of Truth” in From Frege to Wittgenstein, ed. E. Reck, Oxford 2001
  39. Review of Michael Friedman, “A Parting of the Ways”, The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 98, 2001
  40. “Foucault Rethinks the Genealogy of Morals” in Weltanschauungen. Festschrift fuer Kurt Rudolf Fischer, ed. G. Diem-Wille, Frankfurt 2002
  41. “Frege’s These von der Undefinierbarkeit der Wahrheit” in Das Wahre und das Falsche, ed. Dirk Greimann, Hildesheim 2003
  42. “Carl Schmitt’s essay The Concept of the Political” in A New History of German Literature, ed. David E. Welberry et al., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004
  43. “Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time” in A New History of German Literature, ed. David E. Welberry et al., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004
  44. “Wittgenstein and Pyrrhonism” in Pyrrhonian Skepticism, ed. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Oxford 2004
  45. “Heidegger’s Nietzsche” in The Blackwell Companion to Heidegger, ed. Hubert Dreyfus and Mark Wrathall, Oxford 2005
  46. “Foucault’s Encounter with Heidegger and Nietzsche” in The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, second edition, ed. Gary Gutting, New York 2005
  47. “Stanley Cavell and the Pursuits of Happiness” in The Claim to Community. Essays on Stanley Cavell and Political Philosophy, ed. Andrew Norris, Stanford 2006
  48. “Feyerabend in Berkeley” in Paul Feyerabend. Ein Philosoph aus Wien, ed. Friedrich Stadler and Kurt Rudolf Fischer, Vienna 2006
  49. “Jaakko Hintikka (and Others) on Truth” in The Philosophy of Jaakko Hintikka, ed. Randall E. Auxier and Lewis Edwin Hahn, Chicago 2006
  50. “Family Resemblance” in Deepening Our Understanding of Wittgenstein. Grazer Philosophische Studien, vol. 71, ed. Michael Kober, Graz 2006
  51. “Glitter and Doom at the Metropolitan: German Art in Search of the Self” in Inquiry, vol. 50, 2007
  52. “Truth and the Imperfection of Language” in Essays on Frege’s Conception of Truth. Grazer Philosophische Studien, vol. 75, ed. Dirk Greimann, 2007
  53. “The Pluralism of the Political: From Schmitt to Arendt,” in Telos, vol. 4, 2009
  54. “I am only a Nietzschean”,in Foucault and Philosophy, ed. by Timothy O’Leary ans Christopher Falzon, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2010. Turkish translation 2013.
  55. “Our grammar lacks surveyability,” in Language and World. Part One. Essays on the Philosophy of Wittgenstein, edited by Volker Munz, Klaus Puhl, and Joseph Wang, ontos verlag, Frankfurt 2010
  56. Review of Peter E. Gordon, Continental Divide: Heidegger, Cassirer, Davos, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, February 2011
  57. “Could you define the sense of the word ‘political’? Foucault as a political philosopher,” in History of the Human Sciences, vol. 24, 2011.
  58. “Von der normativen Theorie zu diagnostischen Praxis,” in Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, vol. 59, 2011.
  59. “Simple Objects: Complex Questions,” Wittgenstein’s Early Philosophy, edited by Jose L. Zalabardo, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012.
  60. “Beyond ‘the New’ Wittgenstein,” in Ethics, Society, Politics, edited by Hajo Greif and Martin Gerhard Weiss, De Gruyter Ontos, Berlin 2013.
  61. “The Time is Coming When One Will Have to Relearn About Politics,” in Individual and Community in the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, edited by Julian Young, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013.
  62. “Oskar Becker. Vom ‘Dasein’ zum ‘Dawesen’,” in Heidegger Handbuch, edited by Dieter Thomae, second edition, Verlag J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart 2013.
  1. „Der Mensch ist von Natur aus ein politisches Lebewesen. Zur Kritik der politischen

Anthropologie,“ in Die Anthropologische Wende, Schwabe Verlag, Basel 2014, (18 pp.)


  1. „Globale Macht, globale Welt, globale Philosophie,“ in Journal of International Philosophy,

Japan, no. 5, 1916, pp. 275-284 (9pp.); Japanese translation, ibid., pp. 95-103


  1. “Ludwig Wittgenstein: The man, the life, and the work,” in The Cambridge Companion to

 Wittgenstein, 2nd edition, 2018.


  1. “Time and History in Wittgenstein,” in The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein, 2nd edition,





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